2002 Prevalence and ecological association of foliar pathogens of cucumber in North Carolina, 1996-1998 Plant Dis. Gummy Stem Blight – Older tissues are generally affected more often than new ones when gummy stem blight fungus is involved. 1996 Compendium of cucurbit diseases. Comments. 119 370 382, Tetteh, A.Y., Wehner, T.C. & Laranjeira, F.F. Gummy stem blight, caused by the fungus Didymella bryoniae as the sexual stage (perithecia giving rise to ascospores) and Phoma cucurbitacearum as the asexual stage (pycnidia producing conidia), is a common disease of all major cucurbits and is present wherever they are grown. 2nd ed. Rep. 46 883 885, Stewart, J.E., Turner, A.N. Gabriele Gusmini, Todd C. Wehner, and Gerald J. Holmes. Under … It has been found in these crops since the early 1900s. In the greenhouse (a controlled environment), uniform conditions were created for plant and pathogen development. Watermelon gummy stem blight (007) Photo 1. 2013 Genetic mapping of gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae) resistance genes in Cucumis sativus-hystrix introgression lines Euphytica 192 359 369, Malathrakis, N.E. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, Detection and location of seed-borne inoculum of, and its transmission in seedlings of cucumber and pumpkin, Differences in sensitivity to a triazole fungicide among stagonosporopsis species causing gummy stem blight of cucurbits, Spatial genetic structure and population dynamics of gummy stem blight fungi within and among watermelon fields in the southeastern United Sates, SASGENE: A SAS computer program for genetic analysis of gene segregation and linkage, Resistance to benzimidazole fungicides in the gummy stem blight pathogen, Gummy stem blight and black rot of melons. 1Corresponding author. & Brewer, M.T. & Nakai]. E-mail: lariver2@ncsu.edu. Proceedings of Cucurbitaceae 2004, the 8th EUCARPIA Meeting on Cucurbit Genetics and Breeding, Palacki University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, An additional source of resistance to gummy stem blight in watermelon, New sources of resistance to watermelon anthracnose, Gummy stem blight resistance in introduced watermelons, Evolutionary history and variation in host range of three, species causing gummy stem blight of cucurbits, Inheritance of resistance to the new race of powdery mildew in watermelon, Baseline sensitivity and cross-resistance to succinate-dehydrogenase-inhibiting and demethylation-inhibiting fungicides in, , the cause of stem and fruit rot of cucumber (, Resistance to benzimidazole and dicarboximide fungicides in, in cucumbers in The Netherlands. & Jarret, R.L. Chiu & J. C. Walker). 25 36 40, Gusmini, G., Ellington, T.L. In the late afternoon of the day of inoculation, we irrigated with ≈12 mm of water to promote disease development with high relative humidity at night. Fruit is rarely affected, but loss of foliage may affect yield and fruit quality. The watermelon fruit can unfortunately be susceptible to lots of different fungal diseases. Rep. 59 413 415, Sowell, G. Jr, Rohodes, B.B. Resistance to GSB would provide growers with protection against loss by this disease, which is difficult to control, and requires multiple applications of fungicides during crop production. & Norton, J.D. & Paris, H.S. & Campbell, C.L. In the field, we inoculated plants when they reached the fourth-true-leaf stage (≈4 weeks after planting), after overhead irrigation of about 12 mm of water during the two previous days to promote guttation on the day of inoculation, and damaging the trichomes on the leaf surface at each time before the inoculum was delivered by brushing the plants with a wooden stake 200 mm long and 20 mm wide mounted on an aluminum handle 600 mm long (Lou et al., 2013; Song et al., 2004). Matsum. The fungus survives from season to season in crop debris. Gummy stem blight and powdery mildew are the most common diseases in spring crops. Gummy stem blight infection,Didymella bryoniae, on a seedling. Proceedings of the IXth EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Cucurbitaceae, Avignon, France, Kato, T., Suzuky, K., Takahashy, J. Coop. & Donaghy, S.B. For example, ‘Charleston Gray’ varied from a rating of 4 to a rating of 8 among seven plants evaluated (Gusmini et al., 2005). 1998 Soilborne diseases in Cucurbitaceae: Pathogen virulence and host resistance, p. 143–166. & Shetty, N.V. 2000 Screening the cucumber germplasm for resistance to gummy stem blight in North Carolina field tests HortScience 35 1132 1140, Zitter, T.A., Hopkins, D.L. The GSB pathogen is known to be resistant to multiple fungicides. 9 363 367, Hopkins, D.L. 2016 Polyoxin D and other biopesticides reduce gummy stem blight but not anthracnose on melon seedlings Plant Health Prog. Dark pseudothecia, 125–213 µm in diameter, may also form, especially on stems. Yield losses can be as high as 30-40% if the disease is not managed using an appropriate fungicide management strategy under high moisture and warmer weather conditions. In Fig. The ideal scenario for Stevenson and watermelon farmers everywhere would be the development of disease-resistant watermelons, which is currently being researched in Athens. Thus, the resistant PI accession was not more heterogeneous than the pure-line cultivar. An important disease. Gummy stem blight can be confused with anthracnose but the leaf lesions of anthracnose are irregularly shaped in watermelon and the stem cankers are spindle-shaped. Gummy stem blight can be particularly serious on grafted watermelon seedlings. Gummy stem blight’s (GSB) primary symptom is dark circular leaf spots at the leaf surface margin. Plant Pathol. 1) Caused by Didymella bryoniae / Phoma cucurbitacearum Gummy stem blight (caused by D. bryoniae/P. The numerous bitunic… Black rot refers to the same disease on fruit; it is seen less often than the foliar phase. © 2019-2020 American Society for Horticultural Science. Cucurbitaceae 2008. 1917 Some important diseases of truck crops in Florida Florida Agriculture Experimental Station Bulletin 139 269 273, Sherf, A.F. CRC press, Boca Raton, FL, Correlation of ratings for resistance to gummy stem blight in watermelon, p. 199–205. Gummy stem blight is caused by Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN, American Society for Horticultural Science. Mycosphaerella melonis (Pass.) Optimal conditions for gummy stem blight infection in watermelon is 75°F temperature and prolonged moisture with leaf wetness lasting 1-10 hours. On watermelon, cantaloupe melon and cucumber (see Fact Sheet no. 2000 Effect of protectant fungicide application schedules on gummy stem blight epidemics and marketable yield of watermelon Plant Dis. Plants with a disease rating of 5 or less had lesions only on the leaves. The inconsistency of the observed ratios should be attributed, perhaps, to several loci interacting with each other, and also interacting with the environment (Kumar, 2009). Wiley, New York, Song, R., Gusmini, G. & Wehner, T.C. 2012 Baseline sensitivity and cross-resistance to succinate-dehydrogenase-inhibiting and demethylation-inhibiting fungicides in Didymella bryoniae Plant Dis. parts can become affected, the most typical symptom is a water-soaked lesion on the hypocotyl where the cotyledons attach. Rehm (syn. 2012 Molecular characterization of boscalid-and penthiopyrad-resistant isolates of Didymella bryoniae and assessment of their sensitivity to fluopyram Pest Mgt. & MacNab, A.A. 1986 Vegetable diseases and their control. L−1) was added to the inoculum to keep the spores well dispersed in the inoculum solution (Song et al., 2004). Also, there was variation among single plants of pure-line cultivars. Sci. & Abrahams, B.R. to develop methods for evaluation of watermelon for resistance to gummy stem blight, to use those methods to screen the watermelon germplasm collection in comparison with commercial cultivars and resistant cucumbers, to calculate inheritance for watermelon resistance to bummy stem blight, to characterize Molecular Markers to tag genes for resistance, to breed resistant cultigens with commercial cultivars to make them resistant to gummy stem blight, Todd C. Wehner, Professor, Horticultural Science, Gerald J. Holmes, Professor, Plant Pathology, Collect watermelon cultigens for use in screening, Collect isolates of GSB for methods development, Develop a method for screening the germplasm, Screen the germplasm for resistance to GSB, Determine inheritance in resistant x susceptible crosses, Develop elite inbred lines with high resistance to GSB. J. Downy mildew will usually only affect the leaves of the watermelon, but, if not treated in a timely manner, can spread to the rest of the fruit. GSB tends to be more of a foliar pathogen that can move to the petioles and vines, and in extreme cases, the melons. Under humid or wet conditions, affected plants rapidly collapse. Plants were rated ≈5 weeks after planting (≈3 weeks after inoculation) in the greenhouse, and when symptoms appeared on the leaves and stems of the susceptible checks in the field (≈7 weeks after planting = ≈1 week after the second inoculation). Melon production system in South Texas, Annual Research report Texas A&M University, Weslaco, Norton, J.D. In PI 189225 × ‘NH Midget’, F2 plants in the field test segregated 74:36 (susceptible:resistant) (Table 1). So far we have developed a reliable screening method and we are developing a faster method based on inoculation of detached leaves only, we have finished the screening of 1274 PI Accessions from USDA Germplasm Collection, which involved multiple replications and years (from 1998 through 2001) in field and greenhouse. & Sinclair, J.B. 1995 Basic plant pathology methods, 2nd ed. Paris (eds.). Observed variability of GSB outbreaks may be the results of genetic or environmental effects (Wehner and Amand, 1993). Black rot describes the fruit rot stage. is the causative agent of gummy stem blight (GSB), a disease affecting members of the family Cucurbitaceae. In the F2, there were few plants with disease ratings similar to the resistant parent. Gummy stem blight lesions on watermelon stem. 2002 Correlation of ratings for resistance to gummy stem blight in watermelon, p. 199–205. We thank Tammy L. Ellington for her assistance with plant production in the field and greenhouse and Gerald J. Holmes and Anthony P. Keinath for their advice on pathogen handling. Resistance to GSB in watermelon has been previously described as dependent solely on the inheritance of the recessive gene db from PI 189225 (Norton, 1979). 2002 Disease assessment scales for seedling screening and detached leaf assay for gummy stem blight in watermelon Rep. Cucurbit Genet. Samples were collected from the infected watermelon plant from the symptomatic region of stem. Also in this cross, field BC1Pr segregation ratio chi-square test reject the null hypothesis of resistance being controlled by a single gene, in this case, contributed by PI 526233. Necrotic spots may also be present on the margins of cotyledons or true leaves. Infection of seedlings in the nursery is a major threat to watermelon production as it means the fungus is taken to the field and early infection and spread is guaranteed. ASHS Press, Naples, FL, Disease assessment scales for seedling screening and detached leaf assay for gummy stem blight in watermelon, Mass production of gummy stem blight spores for resistance screening, Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon, New sources of resistance to gummy stem blight in watermelon, Review of watermelon genetics for plant breeders, Yates’s correction for continuity and the analysis of 2 × 2 contingency tables, Progress in the development of Crimson Sweet-type watermelon breeding lines with resistance to, , p. 157–162. Gummy stem blight is caused by the fungus Didymella bryoniae and leads to losses for growers every watermelon season. Mycosphaerella melonis, is an ascomycete fungal plant pathogen that causes Gummy stem blight on the family Cucurbitaceae [1-3].The anamorph/asexual stage for this fungus is called Phoma cucurbitacearum [2]. 95 268 270, Gusmini, G., Song, R. & Wehner, T.C. In this case, the chi-square test would be favorable to the single gene hypothesis except for the small P value. An important disease. Gummy stem blight describes the leaf and stem infection stages of the disease. The large black spots are typical of gummy stem blight, Didymella bryoniae, on the leaves. It is a cucurbit disease caused by the fungal pathogen Didymella bryoniae. The disease is also known as black rot due to its characteristic appearance on infe… Host Crops and Plants Gummy stem blight affects all cucurbit crops such as cucumber, … Research from this project will provide effective screening methods for use by seed company personnel in testing their cultivars for resistance to GSB. Molecular characterization of boscalid-and penthiopyrad-resistant isolates of, and assessment of their sensitivity to fluopyram, Screening for resistance to anthracnose (race 2), gummy stem blight, and root knot nematode in watermelon germplasm, Genetic diversity and population structure of cucurbit gummy stem blight fungi based on microsatellite markers, : Pathogen virulence and host resistance, p. 143–166. 86 1094 1100, Power, H.J. & Nakai]. The distribution pattern also supported the presence of a more complex mode of inheritance, with large environmental effects, and modifier genes (Hopkins and Levi, 2008). After grafting, plants must be misted or held at high relative humidity for one week while the vascular bundles of rootstocks and scions connect. & Walker, J.C. 1949 Physiology and pathogenicity of cucurbit black-rot fungus J. Agr. 98 1379 1386, Keinath, A.P. 2013 Inheritance of resistance to the new race of powdery mildew in watermelon Crop Sci. 2008 Progress in the development of Crimson Sweet-type watermelon breeding lines with resistance to Acidovorax avenae subsp. Leaf spots are circular to irregular in shape, large (up to ¾ inch in diameter) and dark brown to black in color (Figure 9). Spread as spores from black sacs on the leaf spots in wind and rain. 1987 Resistance to benzimidazole and dicarboximide fungicides in Botrytis cinerea and Didymella bryoniae in cucumbers in The Netherlands. This distribution pattern suggests the presence of one or more resistant genes segregating in the progenies. The disease can cause significant production losses during warm and wet conditions. 89 75 86, van Steekelenburg, N.A.M. ), 120–180 µm in diameter, form on the surface of leaves, stems, and fruits. 1983 Epidemiological aspects of Didymella bryoniae, the cause of stem and fruit rot of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Neth. The stem of transplants same may show water soaking. One pest in particular is Didymella bryoniae, better known as Gummy Stem Blight (GSB) has been an issue. 2014 Reproduction of Didymella bryoniae on nine species of cucurbits under field conditions Plant Dis. In addition, the test for GSB resistance has variation from plant to plant and rep to rep of 2–4 rating units. Round or irregular brown lesions with faint concentric rings on cotyledons; brown or white lesions on crown and stems; soft, circular brown lesions on fruit; lesions on stems and fruit may be oozing an amber colored sticky substance. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN. Plants were inoculated at least two times at 2-wk intervals by spraying the inoculum onto all upper leaf surfaces. 3), it is advised to destroy the affected tray and any adjacent trays, since … Recently, genetically distinct species have been reported as causal agents of GSB, suggesting that variability of resistance to GSB across years and environments (e.g., greenhouse and field) may be due to interactions of environment with fungal species (Brewer et al., 2015; Keinath, 2014; Stewart et al., 2015). Fungus. 28-29 52 61, Haviland, M.G. Gummy stem blight or stem canker, caused by fungus Didymella bryoniae is one of the main diseases in melon worldwide. Cucurbitaceae 2008. nursery plants infected with gummy stem blight from other cucurbit pathogens, ... Seedling watermelon with early symptoms caused by GSB. Proceedings of the IXth EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Cucurbitaceae, Avignon, France, Negatively correlated cross-resistance between benzimidazole fungicides and methyl N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl) carbamate, Fungicide timing for optimum management of gummy stem blight epidemics on watermelon, Soil amendment with cabbage residue and crop rotation to reduce gummy stem blight and increase growth and yield of watermelon, Effect of protectant fungicide application schedules on gummy stem blight epidemics and marketable yield of watermelon, on nine species of cucurbits under field conditions, Polyoxin D and other biopesticides reduce gummy stem blight but not anthracnose on melon seedlings, Resistance to benomyl and thiophanate-methyl in, Inheritance of fruit yield and other horticulturally important traits in watermelon [, (Thunb.) 84 254 260, Keinath, A.P. 79 354 358, Keinath, A.P. The dotted lines indicate the mean value of the disease assessment scale (4.5). No commercial resistance yet 2016 Control of gummy stem blight in watermelon through different management systems Biosci. Avenot, H.F., Thomas, A., Gitaitis, R.D., Langston, D.B. In addition, PI 189225 was identified as a source of resistance to anthracnose (Colletotricum obiculare) race 2 (Sowell at al., 1980). & Zitter, T.A. 1995 ‘AU-Sweet Scarlet’ watermelon HortScience 30 393 394, Peterson, P.D. The top was kept open during the summer and closed during the winter to keep the internal temperature close to 24 °C, the optimum for S. cucurbitacearum. 139 269 273, Sherf, A.F, yield losses can be visible on (... Affects almost all parts of the anamorph, Phoma cucurbitacearum gummy stem blight downy... Cucurbitacearum ( Fr.: Fr. ) Matsum 394, Peterson, P.D watermelon genetics for and. With resistance to gummy stem blight, Didymella bryoniae, on a seedling region of stem ) 1... 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Powdery mildew in watermelon should not be attributed to a single gene ( Table )... Watermelon should not be attributed to a triazole fungicide among Stagonosporopsis species causing gummy stem blight can be serious... Benzimidazole fungicides in Botrytis cinerea and Didymella bryoniae, the greenhouse ( a controlled environment ), confirmed. More important, resistant accessions identified could be used in breeding programs to develop improved watermelon.. Rainy weather in sensitivity to a triazole fungicide among Stagonosporopsis species causing gummy stem blight North. And resistant varieties might be released until 2005 reduce watermelon yields in South Texas, Annual Research report a! Hortscience 21 1460 1461, Norton, J.D., Boyhan, G. Jr,,... Norton, J.D., Boyhan, G. & Wehner, T.C cucumbers in centre... Crc Press, Boca Raton, FL, Correlation of ratings for resistance to benzimidazole and. 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Can result in crop losses include Phytophthora fruit rot of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus Neth. 2002 Correlation of ratings for resistance to watermelon anthracnose HortScience 105 197 199, Sowell, G. Ellington... Or less had lesions only on the edges of leaves and dark sunken areas on stems and watermelon gummy stem blight... Test for GSB resistance has variation from Plant to Plant and pathogen development F2, there were few with..., Boca Raton, FL, Gusmini, G. & Wehner, T.C classification of the disease scales. D. bryoniae/P can be noticed, and watermelon farmers everywhere would be development... Hortscience 105 197 199, Sowell, G., Norton, J.D the early 1900s and stem stages. €˜Au-Producer’ watermelons HortScience 21 1460 1461, Norton, J.D., Boyhan, G. Pointer... Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen 52 875 880, Wehner, T.C plants ( F2.. For use watermelon gummy stem blight seed company personnel in testing their cultivars for resistance screening cucurbit... ( figure 1 ) from other cucurbit pathogens,... seedling watermelon with early symptoms are round,! Plants in the field test segregated 74:36 ( susceptible: resistant ) ( Table ). Of high trait variability, selection should be controlled by a single recessive gene ( i.e., db gene.. Development of Crimson Sweet-type watermelon breeding lines with resistance to gummy stem blight is the causative agent of stem. Indicates that resistance to the same taxonomic subphylum, but that is where the cotyledons attach after in... An Eastern shore muskmelon field this past week selection on data from replications... Spots in wind and rain least two times at 2-wk intervals by the. To fluopyram pest Mgt leaves and dry cankers on the main stem ( Image )... And powdery mildew in watermelon should not be attributed to a triazole fungicide among species. 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Watermelon families ( resistant PI accession was not more heterogeneous than the pure-line cultivar Vegetable and!, also in this cross, the segregation ratios of BC1Pr plants the., Norton, J.D., Boyhan, G., Wehner, T.C watermelon! 1993 ‘AU-Golden Producer’ watermelon HortScience 28 327 329, Wehner, T.C leaves grow rapidly leaves! Our study indicates that resistance to gummy stem blight describes the leaf spots in wind and.. Other cucurbit pathogens,... seedling watermelon with early symptoms caused by the fungal pathogen Didymella bryoniae on cucurbits Pathol. Released until 2005 1998 Soilborne diseases in Cucurbitaceae: pathogen virulence and host resistance, p. 199–205 susceptible cultivars C.. Few cases in North Carolina ( 2002–03 ) the large black spots are of! Disease-Resistant watermelons, which is currently being researched in Athens wilt ( FW ) can substantial., Zhang, J.X 327 329, Wehner, T.C ratios of BC1Pr plants the., 120–180 µm in diameter, form on the leaf spots in wind rain... Watermelon [ Citrullus lanatus ( Thunb. ) Matsum Experimental Station Bulletin 139 269 273,,! 2004 Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon, rockmelon, Bruton, B.D Turner A.N! Of clear polyethylene on the main stem ( Image 1 ) seen as!

watermelon gummy stem blight

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